1.2 Internet Architecture

1.2.1 Meaning:

The Internet is an international network of computers connected by whatever media including copper wire, optic fibre or wireless communication technology such as GPRS or 3G/4G mobile phone network.

1.2.2 History of Development:

The Internet evolved from a network developed originally to support scientific research to the "World Wide Web" (WWW) over a period of 40 years. In the early 1960's, the United States Department of Defense (DOD) created the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA). One of its first projects was to create a system to link research centers and Universities for purposes of sharing information.

The actual sketch of the original concept of internet :

internet concept
(Source: Public Information from Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), US Department of Transportation)

1.2.3 Access to the Internet:

Users of internet may access to the internet with appropriate software such as web-browser or emailer on a computer with modem or router via a ISP(internet service provider).

Internet Access

internet access
(Source: wikipedia)

1.2.4 Addressing:

An Internet Protocol address (IP address) is a numerical label assigned to each device (e.g., computer, printer) participating in a computer network that uses the Internet Protocol for communication. An IP address serves two principal functions: host or network interface identification and location addressing.

Internet Protocol Version 4 (IPv4)- an IP address as a 32-bit binary umber ( i.e. 232=4,294,967,96). The Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) manages the IP address space allocations globally and delegates five regional Internet registries (RIRs) to allocate IP address blocks to local Internet registries (Internet service providers) and other entities.

Decimal Format- e.g. The IP address of is

ip address decomposition: e.g. (source: wikipedia)

ip address

Human Readable Format(domain name)- e.g.  (server ip: )

Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6)-an IP address as a 128-bit binary umber ( i.e. 2128=....................)

ipv6 address decomposition (source: wikipedia)

ipv6 address

1.2.5 IP Address Management and Domain Name Registry:

ICANN- All technical and policy aspects of the underlying core infrastructure and the principal name spaces are administered by the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN), headquartered in Marina del Rey, California.

Domain Name Registry- A domain name registry is a database of all domain names registered in a top-level domain. A registry operator, also called a network information center (NIC), is the part of the Domain Name System (DNS) of the Internet that keeps the database of domain names, and generates the zone files which convert domain names to IP addresses. Each NIC is an organisation that manages the registration of Domain names within the top-level domains for which it is responsible, controls the policies of domain name allocation, and technically operates its top-level domain.


USA-  NeuStar Inc (since April 2002)
Hong Kong- Hong Kong Domain Name Registration Company Limited

1.2.6 Naming Convention:

Top Level Generic Domains-

.aeroair-transport industry
.asiaAsia-Pacific region
.intinternational organizations
.milU.S. military
.mobimobile devices
.nameindividuals, by name
.telInternet communication services
.traveltravel and tourism industry related sites
.xxxadult entertainment

Country Code Top Level Domain-
.ac Ascension Island
.ad Andorra
.ae United Arab Emirates
.af Afghanistan
.ag Antigua and Barbuda
.ai Anguilla
.al Albania
.am Armenia
.an Netherlands Antilles
.ao Angola
.aq Antarctica
.ar Argentina
.as American Samoa
.at Austria
.au Australia
.aw Aruba
.ax Åland
.az Azerbaijan
.ba Bosnia and Herzegovina
.bb Barbados
.bd Bangladesh
.be Belgium
.bf Burkina Faso
.bg Bulgaria
.bh Bahrain
.bi Burundi
.bj Benin
.bm Bermuda
.bn Brunei Darussalam
.bo Bolivia
.br Brazil
.bs Bahamas
.bt Bhutan
.bv Bouvet Island
.bw Botswana
.by Belarus
.bz Belize
.ca Canada
.cc Cocos (Keeling) Islands
.cd Democratic Republic of the Congo
.cf Central African Republic
.cg Republic of the Congo
.ch Switzerland
.ci Côte d'Ivoire
.ck Cook Islands
.cl Chile
.cm Cameroon
.cn People's Republic of China
.co Colombia
.cr Costa Rica
.cs Czechoslovakia
.cu Cuba
.cv Cape Verde
.cx Christmas Island
.cy Cyprus
.cz Czech Republic
.dd East Germany
.de Germany
.dj Djibouti
.dk Denmark
.dm Dominica
.do Dominican Republic
.dz Algeria
.ec Ecuador
.ee Estonia
.eg Egypt
.eh Western Sahara
.er Eritrea
.es Spain
.et Ethiopia
.eu European Union
.fi Finland
.fj Fiji
.fk Falkland Islands
.fm Federated States of Micronesia
.fo Faroe Islands
.fr France
.ga Gabon
.gb United Kingdom
.gd Grenada
.ge Georgia
.gf French Guiana
.gg Guernsey
.gh Ghana
.gi Gibraltar
.gl Greenland
.gm The Gambia
.gn Guinea
.gp Guadeloupe
.gq Equatorial Guinea
.gr Greece
.gs South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands
.gt Guatemala
.gu Guam
.gw Guinea-Bissau
.gy Guyana
.hk Hong Kong
.hm Heard Island and McDonald Islands
.hn Honduras
.hr Croatia
.ht Haiti
.hu Hungary
.id Indonesia
.ie Ireland
United Kingdom Northern Ireland
.il Israel
.im Isle of Man
.in India
.io British Indian Ocean Territory
.iq Iraq
.ir Iran
.is Iceland
.it Italy
.je Jersey
.jm Jamaica
.jo Jordan
.jp Japan
.ke Kenya
.kg Kyrgyzstan
.kh Cambodia
.ki Kiribati
.km Comoros
.kn Saint Kitts and Nevis
.kp Democratic People's Republic of Korea
.kr Republic of Korea
.kw Kuwait
.ky Cayman Islands
.kz Kazakhstan
.la Laos
.lb Lebanon
.lc Saint Lucia
.li Liechtenstein
.lk Sri Lanka
.lr Liberia
.ls Lesotho
.lt Lithuania
.lu Luxembourg
.lv Latvia
.ly Libya
.ma Morocco
.mc Monaco
.md Moldova
.me Montenegro
.mg Madagascar
.mh Marshall Islands
.mk Republic of Macedonia
.ml Mali
.mm Myanmar
.mn Mongolia
.mo Macau
.mp Northern Mariana Islands
.mq Martinique
.mr Mauritania
.ms Montserrat
.mt Malta
.mu Mauritius
.mv Maldives
.mw Malawi
.mx Mexico
.my Malaysia
.mz Mozambique
.na Namibia
.nc New Caledonia
.ne Niger
.nf Norfolk Island
.ng Nigeria
.ni Nicaragua
.nl Netherlands
.no Norway
.np Nepal
.nr Nauru
.nu Niue
.nz New Zealand
.om Oman
.pa Panama
.pe Peru
.pf French Polynesia
.pg Papua New Guinea
.ph Philippines
.pk Pakistan
.pl Poland
.pm Saint-Pierre and Miquelon
.pn Pitcairn Islands
.pr Puerto Rico
.ps Palestinian territories
.pt Portugal
.pw Palau
.py Paraguay
.qa Qatar
.re Réunion
.ro Romania
.rs Serbia
.ru,.рф Russia
.rw Rwanda
.sa Saudi Arabia
.sb Solomon Islands
.sc Seychelles
.sd Sudan
.se Sweden
.sg Singapore
.sh Saint Helena
.si Slovenia
.sj Svalbard and  Jan MayenIslands
.sk Slovakia
.sl Sierra Leone
.sm San Marino
.sn Senegal
.so Somalia
.sr Suriname
.ss South Sudan
.st São Tomé and Príncipe
.su Soviet Union
.sv El Salvador
.sy Syria
.sz Swaziland
.tc Turks and Caicos Islands
.td Chad
.tf French Southern and Antarctic Lands
.tg Togo
.th Thailand
.tj Tajikistan
.tk Tokelau
.tl East Timor
.tm Turkmenistan
.tn Tunisia
.to Tonga
.tp East Timor
.tr Turkey
.tt Trinidad and Tobago
.tv Tuvalu
.tw Republic of China (Taiwan)
.tz Tanzania
.ua Ukraine
.ug Uganda
.uk United Kingdom
.us United States of America
.uy Uruguay
.uz Uzbekistan
.va Vatican City
.vc Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
.ve Venezuela
.vg British Virgin Islands
.vi U.S. Virgin Islands
.vn Vietnam
.vu Vanuatu
.wf Wallis and Futuna
.ws Samoa
.ye Yemen
.yt Mayotte
.za South Africa
.zm Zambia
.zw Zimbabwe

1.2.7 Internet Map and Node:

In communication networks, a node (Latin nodus, ‘knot’) is a connection point, either a redistribution point or a communication endpoint (some terminal equipment). If the network in question is the Internet or an Intranet, many physical network nodes are host computers, also known as Internet nodes, identified by an IP address, and all hosts are physical network nodes. Practically speaking, ISP or major web-hosting companies are the typical nodes in the internet network architecture.

Internet topological representation-

internet map

(Source: wikipedia)

References Links